QSL

The final courtesy of a radio contact is acknowledgement of the QSO (radio contact).

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QSL is an old brevity code meaning, “I acknowledge receipt”.  Back in the early 1900s when passing messages was a main function of amateur radio (whence the Amateur Radio Relay League or ARRL), the term QSL made a lot of sense.  Today you may hear a ham speak or write QSL to let you know they received something.

The term QSL now more commonly means to confirm a radio contact.  Early on this was done mainly with postcards.

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Some hams still do send out QSL cards, or send them in reply or if requested.  Collecting cards is a fun aspect of ham radio.  Many cards are interesting or unique.

Besides tradition,  a sense of satisfaction, and general fun, QSO confirmation in the form of valid QSL is a basic requirement for most operating awards.  This may not matter to you but many other hams are eager for your QSL, particularly if they are requesting one.

All hams should provide some form of QSL for all contacts except for routine local ones.  Information in the QSL should include the station call signs, date and time (UTC), band/frequency, mode, signal report, and sender’s location details. Good logging is essential for this and a QSL function is often supported by computer logging utilities.

You can determine how to exchange QSLs with a particular station from their QRZ profile if they have one set up (most active hams do).

Details about QSL cards are given further below.  Mailing cards can get expensive.  While the cost of printing the cards is not so bad, postage adds up, particularly when sending internationally.  Bureau (BURO) services to send/receive cards internationally reduces cost somewhat but is still pricey and response time is generally slow (months to years).  Alternate methods of  providing a QSL have arisen out of the need for keeping costs down.

Non-card QSLs are all electronic in nature, exchanged via internet connection in some manner.  We will briefly mention three here.  You can search for others Continue reading

Log Time

Keeping a record of contacts is important in amateur radio.  While not required by the FCC in the United States, logging is definitely encouraged.

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For the common, everyday VHF/UHF radio chatter we participate in on a local repeater, contacts are rarely logged.  This is fine, since logging of these would be a tedious nuisance.  Logging of all other contacts is highly recommended.

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Besides frequency, call sign and signal report, date and time of contact are logged.  Time should be when contact begins, not when completed.

In practice, active hams live in two time zones. The first is their local time, which is when they join a net or sign off a contact because dinner is being served.

Local time is what should be recorded in emergency communication (EmComm) logs when participating in drills or actual disaster deployments where local time is more meaningful.

The second zone hams more frequently use for logging is Zulu time, the current time at the Prime Meridian of the World running through Greenwich, England.  Zulu time (Z)  is also known as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) or Coordinated Universal Time (UTC or sometimes UCT).   If it’s coordinated Universal Time, why is it Called UTC and not CUT?

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Technically GMT is a time zone while UTC is a time standard (details) but practically speaking they are the same thing and in the aviation, military and telecommunications world it’s Zulu time.

Why the name Zulu?  There are 25 integer World Time Zones from -12 through 0 (GMT) to +12. Each one is 15° of Longitude as measured East and West from the Prime Meridian.  These are given alphabetic designations A-Z, less the letter J.  Z (ITU phonetic Zulu) corresponds to the prime meridian at 0° longitude.  Zulu time.

When logging all but EmComm contacts, hams should use Zulu, not their local time.  Then both parties in a logged contact have the same (universal) time and date recorded (date will change at midnight between 2359z and 0000z).  This becomes important when confirming contacts and getting awards.